First detailed microscopy evidence of bacteria at the lower size limit of life

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Scientists have captured the first detailed microscopy images of ultra-small bacteria that are believed to be about as small as life can get. The existence of ultra-small bacteria has been debated for two decades, but there hasn’t been a comprehensive electron microscopy and DNA-based description of the microbes until now. The cells have an average volume of 0.009 cubic microns (one micron is one millionth of a meter). About 150 of these bacteria could fit inside an Escherichia coli cell and more than 150,000 cells could fit onto the tip of a human hair.

Crohn’s disease not exempt from racial disparities

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Significant differences were found in hospital re-admissions, medication usage, and both medical and surgical complications of children with Crohn’s disease related to race. In the study, black children had a 1.5 times higher frequency of hospital re-admissions because of Crohn’s disease compared to white children.

Research of plain wren duets could help further understand fundamentals of conversation

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Known for their beautiful singing duets, plain wrens of Costa Rica perform precise phrase-by-phrase modifications to the duration between two consecutive phrases, achieving careful coordination as their songs unfold. A new study shows that these songbirds achieve precise coordination by adjusting the period between two consecutive phrases (inter-phrase intervals), depending on whether their song is answered, the phrase type used in the duet and the position of the inter-phrase interval within the duet.

Introverts prefer mountains

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In a series of three studies, researchers tested whether there is a link between personality and an aspect of physical ecology: flat terrain versus mountainous terrain. The study found that only one of the Big Five personality traits predicted terrain preference — extraversion.