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More than two million people are incarcerated in the United States, the world’s highest incarceration rate. Researchers report that while many people need to be in prison for the safety of society, a majority are incarcerated due to behaviors linked to treatable diseases such as mental illness and addiction.
In a randomized clinical trial of antibiotic treatments for community-acquired pneumonia, researchers did not find that monotherapy with ²-lactam alone was worse than a combination therapy with a macrolide in patients hospitalized with moderately severe pneumonia.
HIV drug regimens that do not include efavirenz are effective as first-line antiretroviral therapy, a new American clinical trial found. The finding is important for patients who are not eligible for treatment with efavirenz, including women considering becoming pregnant and patients with a history of severe psychiatric disorders.
Doctors appeared to ‘wear down’ during their morning and afternoon clinic sessions, and antibiotic prescribing rates increased the later the day got. “This corresponds to about 5 percent more patients receiving antibiotics at the end of a clinic session compared to the beginning,” explained a reseracher. “Remedies for this problem might include different schedules, shorter sessions, more breaks or maybe even snacks.”
Tiny vesicles containing protective substances that they transmit to nerve cells apparently play an important role in the functioning of neurons. As cell biologists have discovered, nerve cells can enlist the aid of mini-vesicles of neighboring glial cells to defend themselves against stress and other potentially detrimental factors. These vesicles, called exosomes, appear to stimulate the neurons on various levels: they influence electrical stimulus conduction, biochemical signal transfer, and gene regulation. Exosomes are thus multifunctional signal emitters that can have a significant effect in the brain.
Nearly a third of more than 2,100 patients with cancer interviewed at inpatient and outpatient care centers experienced a clinically meaningful level of mental or emotional distress that meets the strict diagnostic criteria for mental disorders including anxiety, depressive and adjustment disorders during the prior four weeks. The prevalence of these issues varied by cancer type.